地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 2391-2402.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200458

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国家级自然保护区人类活动及变化特征

刘晓曼(), 付卓, 闻瑞红, 靳川平, 王雪峰, 王超, 肖如林, 侯鹏()   

  1. 生态环境部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-29 修回日期:2020-07-09 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 侯鹏
  • 作者简介:刘晓曼(1979-),女,湖北宜昌人,博士,研究员,主要从事自然生态保护与修复研究。E-mail:showma79@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506506);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500206)

Characteristics of human activities and the spatio-temporal changes of national nature reserves in China

LIU Xiaoman(), FU Zhuo, WEN Ruihong, JIN Chuanping, WANG Xuefeng, WANG Chao, XIAO Rulin, HOU Peng()   

  1. Ministry of Ecology and Environment Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2020-05-29 Revised:2020-07-09 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-12-20
  • Contact: HOU Peng

摘要:

自然保护区是中国自然保护地的基础,是生物多样性保护的核心区域,国家级自然保护区更是中国自然保护区的主体。基于高分辨率影像数据,提取了中国446个国家级自然保护区2015年的人类活动及2013—2015年人类活动变化信息,分不同功能区、不同人类活动、不同区域和不同类型国家级自然保护区分析了人类活动及变化情况,并评估了2013—2015年人类活动变化强度和规律,结果表明:2015年,446个国家级自然保护区人类活动普遍存在,以农业用地和居民点占绝对优势,这两种类型人类活动总面积占国家级自然保护区人类活动总面积的88.94%、总数量占77.67%。2013—2015年,有66.59%的国家级自然保护区存在新增或规模扩大人类活动,人类活动数量增幅达到2.45%,相较于农业用地和居民点,开发建设活动的新增或规模扩大趋势更为明显。2013—2015年,33.41%的国家级自然保护区人类活动无变化,45.06%的国家级自然保护区人类活动变化较小,仅有21.53%的国家级自然保护区人类活动变化明显和较明显。从空间分布看,总体上东部的国家级自然保护区比中西部的国家级自然保护区人类活动变化强度大,沿海、沿河国家级自然保护区人类活动变化强度相对较大。

关键词: 国家级自然保护区, 人类活动, 时空变化, 中国

Abstract:

Nature reserves are the core area for biodiversity conservation. National nature reserves are the main body of nature reserves in China. According to characteristic of each type of human activity, the patches of different human activities of 446 national nature reserves in 2015 and their change from 2013 to 2015 were interpreted with the aid of GIS and RS. Status of the distribution of human activities and their change are generally analyzed in different functional zones and different regions in China. Also according to different types of human activities, the intensity and characteristics of dynamic change of human activities are evaluated from 2013 to 2015. The results showed that in 2015, there were different kinds of human activities in 446 national nature reserves. Human activities were widely distributed, and agricultural land and residential areas were dominant. The area of the two types covered more than 88.94% of the total of human activities. And the number exceeded 77.67% of the total. In China, 66.59% of national nature reserves had new or expanded human activities from 2013 to 2015, and the amount of human activities increased by 2.45%. Compared with agricultural land and residential areas, the increase trend is more pronounced of the development or construction activities. From 2013 to 2015, the number of national nature reserves where human activities had no change covered 33.41% of the total number of national nature reserves in China, those with little change covered 45.06%, and those with and significant change covered only 21.53%. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the overall human activity in the national nature reserves of eastern China is greater than that of central and western parts of the country. The intensity of human activities in coastal and riverside national nature reserves is relatively strong.

Key words: national nature reserve, human activities, spatio-temporal change, China