地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 657-672.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020200849

• 专栏:绿洲耕地可持续利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆昌吉州耕地开垦轨迹对土壤肥力变化的影响

许咏梅1(), 周黎明2, 张兆彤3,4()   

  1. 1.新疆农科院土壤肥料与农业节水研究所,乌鲁木齐 830091
    2.昌吉州农业技术推广中心,昌吉 831100
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-04 接受日期:2021-02-09 出版日期:2021-03-10 发布日期:2021-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 张兆彤
  • 作者简介:许咏梅(1973-),女,广东潮州人,博士,研究员,主要从事农业资源高效利用研究。E-mail:xym1973@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41561070);国家重点研发项目(2017YFD0201506)

Effect of cultivated land reclamation tracks on soil fertility changes in Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang

XU Yongmei1(), ZHOU Liming2, ZHANG Zhaotong3,4()   

  1. 1. Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Agricultural Water Reduction, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China
    2. Agricultural Technology Extension Center of Changji City, Changji 831100, Xinjiang China
    3. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-09-04 Accepted:2021-02-09 Online:2021-03-10 Published:2021-05-10
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhaotong

摘要:

定量刻画区域尺度耕地开垦轨迹(初始地类、初始土壤类型和耕作年限)对土壤肥力变化的影响,对指导区域农业施肥管理措施、提高农田土壤肥力具有重要意义。本文以新疆昌吉州为研究区,通过叠加5期土地利用数据来识别耕地开垦轨迹,基于1980年和2018年两期大量样点数据,分析耕地开垦前的土地利用方式和土壤类型以及开垦后耕作年限的差异对土壤肥力变化的影响。结果表明:① 1980—2018年间新开垦耕地面积的90.12%来源于草地,9.88%来源于未利用地。在此期间除碱解氮含量降低之外,其他土壤肥力指标含量均增加。② 高覆盖度草地被开垦会造成土壤有机质的损失,草地(高、中、低覆盖度草地)和未利用地(盐碱地和裸土地)被开垦会降低土壤碱解氮含量,增加有效磷和速效钾含量。③ 随耕作年限增加,土壤有机质呈现缓慢的增加态势并逐步趋于平稳;而速效养分含量短期内增加,当耕作年限达到中长期(19~28年)后趋于稳定或开始下降,存在阈值效应。④ 草地开垦造成的有机质损失在耕作年限达到中长期之后逐渐得以恢复。草地和未利用地开垦造成的碱解氮损失在耕作38年之后仍未得到恢复。⑤ 初始土壤类型为草甸土和灌漠土的现状土壤肥力较高,棕钙土和灰漠土的肥力较低。建议随耕地经营年限的增加,合理配比氮磷钾肥,改善重氮肥轻磷钾肥的现状,增加磷钾肥施用量,少量多次施用氮肥。

关键词: 新疆昌吉州, 耕地开垦轨迹, 土壤肥力, 土地利用方式

Abstract:

It is meaningful for guiding regional agricultural fertilization management measures and improving farmland soil fertility to quantitatively describe the impact of cultivated land reclamation tracks on soil fertility changes at a regional scale. This study identified the cultivated land reclamation tracks by superimposing multiple periods of land use data based on a large number of sample data in 1980 and 2018, to analyze the effects of initial land use and soil types and cultivation years on soil fertility changes in Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang. The result were as follows: (1) Among the current cultivated land in 2018, 90.12% of the original land type was grassland, and 9.88% of the original land type was unused land. The content of other soil fertility indexes increased except for the decrease of available nitrogen (AN) content. Except for soil organic matter (SOM), the spatial variability of other indicators increased. (2) The SOM content reduced because of the reclamation of high-coverage grassland. The reclamation of grassland and unused land would reduce AN content. (3) With the increase of cultivation years, SOM showed a slow increase and gradually stabilizes; while the available nutrient content increased in a short period of time, and stabilized or began to decrease after reaching a certain number of years because of the threshold effect. (4) The loss of SOM caused by grassland reclamation gradually recovered after the cultivation period reached the medium-long term. The SOM content of current cultivated land that the original land type was unused land was always positive. The loss of AN caused by reclamation of grassland and unused land had not been recovered after 38 years of cultivation. (5) The plots with the initial soil types of meadow soil and shrub desert soil had higher nutrient content, and brown calcium soil and gray desert soil had lower nutrient content. The SOM content of current cultivated land that the original soil type was meadow soil decreased. Therefore, it is recommended that the application ratio of fertilizer should be reasonably adjusted, and the potassium fertilizer should be increased. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied in low intensity and high frequency.

Key words: Changji Prefecture,Xinjiang, land reclamation track, soil fertility, land use type