地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (12): 2333-2346.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201612012

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆人口的空间分布特征

杨振1,2(), 雷军1(), 段祖亮1, 董洁芳1,2, 苏长青3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 新疆财经大学经济学院,乌鲁木齐 830012
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-30 修回日期:2016-09-17 出版日期:2016-12-23 发布日期:2017-01-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨振(1988- ),男,河南夏邑人,博士,研究方向为城市与区域规划。E-mail:yzwsx@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671168)

Spatial distribution of population in Xinjiang

Zhen YANG1,2(), Jun LEI1(), Zuliang DUAN1, Jiefang DONG1,2, Changqing SU3   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Economics, Xinjiang University of Finance Economy, Urumqi 830012, China
  • Received:2016-05-30 Revised:2016-09-17 Online:2016-12-23 Published:2017-01-05

摘要:

人口过程在空间上的表现形式是区域自然地理条件和社会经济因素相互作用的结果。新疆人口空间分布受地貌、气候和水文等自然条件的影响,表现出分散分布的特征。研究新疆人口空间分布特征对新疆人口发展和城市规划具有重要的指导意义。在GIS的支持下,从多角度、多尺度出发构建了两个年份新疆人口空间数据库,对新疆人口空间分布的集散程度、多尺度的人口疏密状况、人口重心分布及变动、民族人口空间分布态势进行空间可视化表达。得出以下结论:① 新疆人口空间分布的集中程度逐步增加,各尺度人口集中的速度均较慢,人口空间分布具有较强的稳定性,人口的流动性较差。② 人口空间分布具有尺度依赖性,不同空间尺度表现出不同的分布特征,空间尺度越大,人口分布特征越不明显,从小尺度对人口分布特征进行研究可以避免大尺度探究带来的不足,小尺度新疆人口空间分布呈现圈层结构,表现出人口空间分布的“三大集群”和零星若干“小集群”的分布特征。③ 新疆人口重心分布逐年向东偏北方向移动且移动的距离较短,说明新疆人口有向北疆,尤其是天山北坡城市群集中的态势,但集中的速度较慢,对人口重心移动的距离影响较小。从重心空间分布及其变化可以看出影响新疆人口空间分布的第一大要素是水资源。④ 新疆民族人口空间分布也具有独特性。维吾尔族人口主要分布在南疆三地州且空间集聚态势明显,哈萨克族人口空间分布也较为集中,汉族和回族人口空间分布分散,集聚态势不明显,与其他民族的融合较强。

关键词: 人口空间分布, 集中程度, 尺度依赖, 人口重心, 民族人口, 新疆

Abstract:

Influenced by natural factors that include terrain, landform, climate and hydrology, the spatial distribution of population in Xinjiang has a pattern of decentralized distribution. Research on the spatial distribution of population is of great significance to the population development and urban planning. Starting off from the perspective of multi-angle and multi-scale, we built the population spatial database of two years in Xinjiang. Furthermore, to better understand the law of population distribution, the degree of population agglomeration and diffusion, the population density of multi-scale, the distribution and change of population gravity center and the spatial distribution of ethnic population were visualized with the help of GIS. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) the concentration degrees of population spatial distribution is increasing in Xinjiang and the level and the speed of population concentration at all scales are relatively slow, which indicates that the population spatial distribution has strong stability, and the mobility of the population is low. (2)There exists a strong scale dependency in the population spatial distribution: the larger the spatial scale, the less obvious the population agglomeration. The population spatial distribution at small scale has a ring-shaped structure, which is characterized by "three major clusters" and some sporadic small clusters. (3)The population center of gravity is gradually moving to the northeast and the moving distance is very short, which indicates that the population of Xinjiang presents a gathering trend in the northern Xinjiang, especially in the Tianshan Mountain city cluster. Moreover, it can be shown that the crucial factor that affects Xinjiang's population spatial distribution is water resources. (4)The spatial distribution of the ethnic population in Xinjiang is unique. Specially, the Uygur population is mainly distributed in the three southern prefectures of Xinjiang, while the majority of Kazak population is distributed in the northern Xinjiang. Meanwhile, the spatial agglomeration trend of Uygur population is more obvious than that of Kazak population. Compared with Uygur and Kazak, the Han and Hui have a strong ethnic amalgamation, therefore, the spatial distribution of these two ethnic groups tends to be decentralized.

Key words: population spatial distribution, concentration degree, scale dependence, population gravity center, ethnic population, Xinjiang