地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 597-606.doi: 10.11821/yj2010040003

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态补偿效益、标准——国际经验及对我国的启示

赵翠薇1,2, 王世杰1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地球化学研究所环境地球化学国家重点实验室,贵阳 550002;
    2. 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-11 修回日期:2009-12-15 出版日期:2010-04-20 发布日期:2010-04-20
  • 作者简介:赵翠薇(1968-),女,贵州大方人,教授,博士后。主要从事:土地利用与生态环境方面的科研与教学。E-mail:zhaocuiwei@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重大基础研究计划973项目专项;贵州科技厅基金项目黔科合J字[2008]2217;贵州科技厅社发项目黔科合SZ字[2009]3034

Benefits and standards of ecological compensation: International experiences and revelations for China

ZHAO Cui-wei1,2, WANG Shi-jie1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geochemistry, CAS,Guiyang 550002,China;
    2. School of Geography and Environment Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550002,China
  • Received:2009-08-11 Revised:2009-12-15 Online:2010-04-20 Published:2010-04-20

摘要:

随着环境压力的不断增大,生态补偿作为解决环境问题的创新手段日益受到重视,补偿效益是生态补偿的核心。通过综合分析近年来国内外生态补偿研究的相关文献,发现优化选择补偿区域和合理的补偿标准是提高补偿效益的关键,机会成本是应用较广的确定生态补偿标准的方法,不同区域提供的生态服务以及损失的机会成本有差异。我国对区域差异关注较少,补偿标准未能反映农户的真实成本,存在补偿不足或对不需补偿就能提供生态服务的区域实施补偿等问题,补偿资金利用效益较低。国际上比较注重生态补偿的区域差异,在生态补偿效益、促进环境保护积极性等方面效果较好。针对我国目前生态补偿中存在的问题,借鉴国际经验,提出了确定生态补偿标准的理论框架。

关键词: 生态补偿, 标准, 效益, 启示

Abstract:

With environment pressures growing significantly, Payments for Environmental Services(PES) have attracted increasing interest as an innovative mechanism to resolve environmental problems. How to enhance the benefits of compensation is its key issue. By reviewing the main issues in PES design and implementation at home and abroad in recent years, we found that(1)both prioritizing sites to be compensated and setting subsidy standards reasonably are very important for enhancing the benefit of compensation;(2)logic standard of payments for environmental services is between opportunity cost and ecosystem services value. But the results of valuation on ecosystem services vary with methods. So opportunity-cost method is the way widely used to determine ecological compensation standard. Opportunity cost depends on natural and socio-economic conditions and changes among areas. By synthesizing the information presented, we make a comparison in respect of choosing compensation regions, setting compensation standards, and environmental effectiveness at home and abroad. It was shown that less attention was paid to regional differences in China so that sometimes subsidies were insufficient to cover the real costs on environment protection of peasant household. Two problems emerged, that is, subsidies were lower than costs of providing eco-service, and regions with smaller deforestation risk were compensated. Both can lead to low efficiency of distribution compensation funds. In foreign countries, a payment scheme that took variation in land conditions into account, which had better effects on ecological compensation benefits and on encouraging behavior of protecting environment. Finally, according to the existing problems in China and taking international examples, a framework to set a reasonable standard of ecological compensation was proposed.

Key words: ecological compensation, standard, benefits, revelation