地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 1364-1376.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201807009

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国家中心城市竞争力及其职能演变——基于上市企业总部的研究

潘峰华(), 杨博飞   

  1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,环境遥感与数字城市北京市重点实验室,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-19 修回日期:2018-04-02 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-08-03
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:潘峰华(1982- ),男,江苏常州人,博士,副教授,主要从事金融地理、城市与区域发展方面研究。 E-mail: panfenghua@bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(14ZDA035);国家自然科学基金项目(41201107)

Competitiveness and function specialization of national central cities in China: An empirical study based on headquarters of China's pubic listing firms

Fenghua PAN(), Bofei YANG   

  1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Remote Sensing and Digital Cities, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-12-19 Revised:2018-04-02 Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-08-03
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

国家中心城市是核心和枢纽城市,也是大企业最为集聚的地方。企业总部是企业的决策和命令中心,拥有大企业总部的数量及企业总部规模是衡量国家中心城市竞争力的重要指标。利用国内上市企业的数据,计算中国城市的控制和命令指数(简称CCI指数),从全国尺度考察北京、上海和广州等8个国家中心城市的竞争力及其职能演化,并剖析国家中心城市总部职能的专业化格局。结果发现:北京和上海两个城市控制和支配功能要远远强于其他国家中心城市,一直位居前两位。从2005年到2014年,北京的CCI指数显著增强,且优势逐渐扩大。北京地位的显著提升很大程度上得益于金融业央企的上市和增长,这是北京作为政治中心的独特优势进一步释放的结果。而其余国家中心城市的CCI指数大多呈现下降趋势。在行业上,金融业、制造业和采矿业一直占据中国经济的主要控制与支配地位。过去10年,金融业在经济中的地位显著增强,尤其是东部大城市的金融业CCI指数普遍有大幅提升;相反,制造业和采矿业的控制与支配功能则明显减弱。对国家中心城市的分析来看,北京、上海和广州在大部分行业中都具有明显优势,属于全国性的综合型大城市。而其余5个国家中心城市的功能专业化程度较低。此外,8个国家中心城市与周边区域发展的相互联系存在明显差异,究其原因在于区域经济发展程度和城市产业发展特点。

关键词: 国家中心城市, 城市竞争力, 上市企业, 企业总部, 城市职能

Abstract:

National central cities have strong competitiveness and specialized functions in selected sectors. Headquarters are the command and control centers of firms and the quantity of headquarters of large firms in a city reflects the city's commanding function. Thus, it is ideal to use the distribution of large firms' headquarters to measure national central cities' competitiveness and specialized functions. Based on a dataset of China's public listing firms, this paper explores the commanding functions of Chinese cities and their evolutions by calculating the command and control index (CCI). The empirical results show that (1) Beijing and Shanghai are the two most powerful command and control centers in China. Beijing obtained a significant increase in command function during 2005-2014, while Shanghai's CCI decreased. The rise of public listing firms from the finance sector contributes most to growing CCI of Beijing. (2) The finance and manufacturing are the two sectors with the highest CCI in China. The finance sector has gradually taken the leading role in determining a city's command role. According to the analysis of the national central cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have obvious advantages in most industries and are nationwide comprehensive big city. The functional specialization of central cities in the remaining five national central cities is relatively low. In addition, there are obvious differences in the inter-linkages between the development of the central cities of eight national central cities and the surrounding areas. The reason for this is the extent of regional economic development and the characteristics of urban industrial development.

Key words: national central city, city competitiveness, public listing firms, headquarters, city function