地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 1435-1446.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201807014

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基于全球生产网络视角下的零售供应链升级与转型——以鲜奶和大豆油为例

王玥1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室, 南京 210008
    2. 江苏省苏科创新战略研究院, 南京 210019
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-04 修回日期:2018-04-16 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-08-03
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王玥(1982- ),女,上海市人,博士,研究方向为全球生产网络和零售业国际化。E-mail:yuewang@niglas.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401131);中国博士后科学基金面上资助(2014M561721);教育部留学回国人员科研启动基金

Retailing supply networks transformation and upgrading within the global production networks (GPN): The case studies of fresh milk and edible oil

Yue WANG1,2()   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Jiangsu Academy of Innovation Strategy, Nanjing 210019, China
  • Received:2017-12-04 Revised:2018-04-16 Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-08-03
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

在过去的10年中,快速的零售业全球化进程已经在经济地理学研究中引起了强烈的关注。依托全球生产网络分析框架,通过阐述权利与价值在两个食品供应链(鲜奶和食用油)中发生的迁移与更迭,揭示出跨国零售企业进入中国市场前后,本土供应链发生的转型与升级。同时,就供应链转型所具有的五个普适性特征,包括集中化采购、专业批发商的涌现、物流与信息系统升级、执行企业标准和发展自有品牌,在选取的案例产品中进行分析与比较,以此来解释供应链重组过程中的影响因素。结果表明:应采用动态的视角来研究零售供应链中的权利与价值,以此才能更好地揭示新兴市场中供应链网络转型升级的复杂性和不均衡性。

关键词: 全球生产网络, 跨国零售企业, 供应链, 升级, 转型

Abstract:

Over the last decade, the intensive and rapid retail internationalization has attracted wide attention across the social sciences. In particular, the local supply network impacts from retail transnational corporations (TNCs) purchasing activities have been discussed extensively by academic scholars, especially in terms of the host economies of Latin America. However, it is surprising that little similar research has been conducted in the world's biggest retailing market - China. Thus this paper adopts the global production networks (GPN) approach to explore these local supply network transformations in the Chinese market, and also identifies the mechanisms of upgrading process. The GPN framework refers to networks of firms and institutions, which pinpoints where value is created, enhanced and then captured throughout supply networks, highlights the dynamics of power within these webs of production, and reveals how retail TNCs make their attempt at embedding themselves in local markets. With the extensive interview-based fieldwork undertaken in Shanghai, China between 2014 and 2015 on two specific local supply networks, i.e., branded fresh milk and own branded edible oil, the paper examines the five ongoing shifts of the procurement activities adopted by retail TNCs in the host market. They are centralization of procurement, upgrading logistical systems, adoption of the specialized/dedicated wholesalers, private-standards enforcement and the development of private labels. The analysis demonstrates significant variations in both retailer management practices and strategic responses by suppliers between the two products. It reveals the dynamic power relations among retail TNCs, suppliers, wholesalers and logistics providers. In addition, a considerable restructuring and reconfiguration process has taken place in the local distribution, wholesale and agricultural production sectors, due to the increasing power exercised by retail TNCs. Finally, the paper calls for an in-depth study on the retailer power and its impacts based on the nuanced and dynamic approach, in an aim at better understanding the complexity and unevenness of supply network restructuring in emerging markets.

Key words: global production networks (GPN), retail TNCs, supply networks, upgrading, transformation